Soil is complex and creates a refuge for plant pests, such as insects, weeds, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. Fumigants are uniquely effective because in their gaseous form they disperse through the soil and reach nearly all the pest organisms in the treated zone. Properly applied fumigants are particularly effective at treating more than one soil-borne problem. Without them, separate chemicals would be necessary. Soil fumigation provides benefits to both consumer and grower. Consumers are able to buy more fresh fruits and vegetables of higher quality at a price they can afford. Growers are able to maximize field usage with shorter crop rotational intervals and greater yields suitable for sale.